Tuesday, 27 September 2016

Dental Cavities- Causes, Prevention and Filling Cavities

Bacteria break down the hard enamel of the teeth and this result in a dental cavity or dental caries. This is a very common disorder and affects adults and children alike. The dental cavities are basically damaged teeth that have holes in them and can be of either yellow or black colour.


Dental cavities are caused by the breakdown of foods such as sugar and starch in our mouth by bacteria. This breakdown converts the food into plaque, which is a sticky substance. Plaque attaches itself to the teeth and is commonly found on the back molars, edges of fillings and the gum line. 

When plaque is not removed from the teeth due to irregular brushing, it gets converted into tartar or calculus. This causes the formation of gingivitis and periodontitis and further causes the irritation of gums.

Within twenty minutes of eating plaque build- up starts and it can cause tooth decay as the acids present in it destroys the tooth enamel. Cavities can grow very deep and can cause tooth fracture and affect nerves. An untreated tooth cavity can cause tooth abscess and also, destroy the tooth insides, which is difficult to treat and may lead to the removal of the teeth in the worst case scenario. 

Chances of developing a tooth cavity increase by the increased intake of starches or carbohydrates and sugars. Frequent snacking on sticky foods increases the contact time of the teeth with acids. 


Symptoms do not occur when the cavity is only superficial, that is, it is not deep enough to affect the nerves or gums. But, in severe cases, the symptoms may occur and can be listed as follows-

1. Toothache 
2. Sensitivity
3. Visible pits or holes in the teeth

A cavity first appears in the form of a chalky area on the teeth and then grows into a dent or hole. Routine dental checkups with the help of explorer and dental mirror must be performed to catch this disorder at an early stage before it causes any serious problem. While a dental exam will show cavities that are visible to the eye, a dental x- ray will help in discovering the cavities that are almost invisible. X- rays are also used to detect the presence of cavities in less visible areas and corners in the teeth.


1. Oral hygiene - Proper brushing with toothpaste containing fluoride and flossing every day.
2. Dietary modification - Intake frequency of sugars and carbohydrates should be reduced. Also, milk can cheese can cause tooth decay. Chewing gum with xylitol is helpful in the prevention.
3. Dental Sealants - These are thin plastic coatings that protect the chewing surface by acting as a barrier.
4. Calcium - It is often recommended by dentists to chew on to prevent tooth decay.
5. Vaccines are also being developed for the purpose of completely eliminating tooth decay.


Treatment of a tooth cavity is necessary as it causes an immense amount of pain and the destroyed tooth never regenerates. Some of the treatment methods may involve the following-

1. Fillings - Composite resins, amalgams, porcelain and gold are used to fill the cavities to stop it from further growing in the early stages of the cavity.
2. Crowns - These are also called caps and are used in extreme situations where there is almost no tooth structure left and it is extremely weak.
3. Endodontic Therapy - Also called root canal, is done when the nerve in the tooth dies due to the decay or injury. The tooth is removed along with the blood vessels and the roots are filled with a sealing material. Then, the tooth is filled and is covered with a crown.

Wednesday, 21 September 2016

Cosmetic procedures to look younger

It's every woman's and man's dream to grow old gracefully. But family duties like childcare, long office work hours along with other unexpected uncertainties in life create a stressful personal and professional life, which then takes a toll on your youthful appearance.

The first place on your body where signs of ageing appear are your face as the skin on the face is thinner and more delicate comparatively to the rest of your body.

We have seen many celebrities that go under the knife to look younger and come out looking as a totally different person. We have also seen celebrities who look ageless despite their true age. It is absolutely possible to get cosmetic corrections done to your face with or without surgery and keeping the integrity of face at the same time.

Some measures must be taken to slow the process of ageing despite cosmetic surgery. Simple steps like staying out of the sun as much as possible and protecting your skin by using sunscreen during the day, despite stepping out or not. Moisturising your skin regularly, using anti-aging skin care containing retinoid, healthy diet and regular exercise are some other ways to keep your youthful look for as long as possible. However, if these steps prove to be ineffective, you can always turn towards facial cosmetic procedures, which are mentioned below.

1. Skin Firming - Skin firming can be achieved by chemical peels. This uses an acid solution safe for the skin, which reacts to it to remove the outer layer of skin to give a healthier, smoother new skin with reduced lines and wrinkles.

2. Crow's Feet - These are wrinkles and fine lines at the edges of your eyes. They are caused over the years due to exposure to sunlight and smoking. Botox helps reduce their appearance.

3. Tear Trough - Due to dehydration the area under the eyes of an individual may look dark, sunken and baggy. This area between the eye and the nose is called as tear trough and when it sinks due to an unhealthy lifestyle, it can give a very tired or sickly look. They can be filled with the help of soft fillers such as derma fillers to give a younger and plumper look.

4. Non-surgical Rhinoplasty - A mild nasal irregularity or hump can be easily corrected with the help of some fillers. Injection rhinoplasty is a great option for patients who are also looking for slight changes in their flat nose bridge or an ill-defined nose tip.

5. Smile Correction - If your upper lip rises a little too much to expose your gums while smiling, a simple procedure using some Botox injections will correct it.

6. Chin Augmentation - As you age, your chin will sag. This can be corrected using fillers, for both long and short chins.

7. Chiselled Jawline - A strong bone structure can give an almost masculine look. When you age, the thinning muscles expose more bone to the surface and give a square-shaped face. This can be easily corrected using fillers which will give the appearance of a more oval face.

8. Lip Augmentation - Aging also causes lips to thin due to loss of moisture and natural elasticity of the skin. Therefore, lip plumping can be easily achieved with the help of fillers such as Juvederm to achieve a natural looking pout.

9. Facelift - This procedure is a full-fledged surgery that lifts the entire face including the eyebrows or forehead, the cheeks and the jaw along with the neck, as per the requirement. Loosening of muscles due to loss of skin elasticity is a problem whose correction is extremely popular.

10. Cheek Bones - Due to sagging skin our cheeks may begin to lose their natural contour. The high cheek bones can be obtained by using either fillers or with the help of implants.

Cosmetic Dentistry - The Pros and Cons You Would Want to Know

What is cosmetic dentistry?

Cosmetic dentistry is focussed on creating a brighter and more enhanced smile. This is achieved by providing a number of cosmetic services such as braces or orthodontics, teeth whitening and bonding or veneers to provide an overall dental health as well as cosmetic dental health. This aids in an improvement in self- esteem and confidence of the person.

Some of the very common cosmetic dentistry procedures are tooth coloured restorations and fillings, tooth bonding, tooth whitening, orthodontics, porcelain veneers, dental implants, crowns or caps, enamel shaping and contouring, bridges and periodontal plastic procedures. Over the past decade, the technology involved with cosmetic dentistry has evolved at a staggering rate and it is surprising, the kinds of results that can be achieved by cosmetic dentistry.

Cosmetic dentistry is not credited as an actual speciality in the field of dentistry. Any dentist can claim to be a cosmetic dentist despite their experience or skill.

Before opting for any kind of permanent treatment for cosmetic purposes, one must understand fully, the pros and cons associated with it. 

1. Porcelain Veneers- With the help of a specific bonding process, porcelain veneers (thin shells) are fixed on a tooth. This is used to restore damaged, uneven or even discoloured teeth. These are also used to give a rounder appearance to the face by providing longer and squarer teeth. Also, fuller lips and smoother lip lines can be achieved by the use of porcelain veneers.

Pros- Repair of discoloured, chipped or broken teeth and teeth gaps. Gives a straight looking, enhanced smile.

Cons- Fragile, irreversible, risk of trauma, increase in teeth sensitivity and not everyone is eligible to get veneers.

2. Porcelain crowns- Some crowns are made up of porcelain only while others have a metal shell set on a tooth and then a porcelain layer over it and are called porcelain fused metal (PFM) crown . These crowns are used to restore decayed and cracked tooth

Pros- As opposed to porcelain over PFM crowns does not have a dark line as it has a natural colour that imitates the tooth colour. These look natural, are non-allergic and can be performed in one seating.

Cons- These are more fragile as compared to PFM crowns. These also cause hypersensitivity in tooth. They have a worse fit, require more teeth reduction and are costlier than PFM crowns.

3. Orthodontics- Also called dental braces consist of a combination of brackets, wires and banding which is fitted on a person's teeth and left for a few years to correct overbites or under bites.

Pros- Corrects bites and straightens teeth.

Cons- Causes pain and discomfort, embarrassment especially for children, can get stained. Also, might damage teeth, difficult to clean, great initial discomfort and difficult routine adjustments.

4. Whitening- Bleaching agents such as carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide along with light or laser are used.

Pros- Three to eight shades of lightening can be achieved. It eliminates yellow and discoloured teeth.

Cons- Increased sensitivity, irritation and soreness around gums and surrounding tissues.

5. Implants- Also called dentures, is an artificial tooth root and is made up of titanium and other materials. 

Pros- One or multiple teeth can be implanted. Gives full functionality of a healthy tooth.

Cons- Requires surgery and recovery time is high. The tooth/ teeth will need replacement, causes slight bone loss around the implant over the years.

6. Amalgam filling replacement- Used when dental fillings are needed to match with a person’s natural tooth colour.

Pros- Better than silver fillings as these do not contain mercury, are the natural colour of teeth, does not turn tooth gray, bonds well and less tooth removal required.

Cons- Needs replacements every seven to ten years, not suitable for large fillings and a dry field is required for it placement.

Tuesday, 20 September 2016

What is Root Canal Treatment and How it can help you?

A root canal is performed in order to save or repair an infected tooth. This is done by removing the tooth, its pulp and the nerves and then disinfecting the root and then sealing it. The function of the nerve of the tooth is not vital to the tooth health. It only helps with the sensation of hot or cold while eating.

Why is Root Canal done?

1. The tooth nerve can be damaged easily due to deep tooth decay, trauma to the face, cracked or chipped a tooth, due to the usage of large fillings and also, repeated dental procedures on the tooth.

2. Bacteria begin to multiply when the nerve or the pulp of the tooth is damaged. This causes an infected or an abscessed tooth which is filled with pus. When this pus fills the tooth all the way to the root then it causes an abscess. Along with an abscess, the multiplying bacteria may also cause the following.

3. Swelling and pain, which can easily spread to other areas of the mouth, face or head.

4. It can cause bone loss at the root.

5. It can cause complicated drainage problems. A hole can form at the base of the tooth and cause drainage in the mouth through the gums or it can cause drainage into the skin through the cheeks.

What happens during a Root Canal?

Before the main procedure, the dentist will discuss what is going to happen in detail and make you feel at ease. Depending upon the extent of the problem in the tooth a dentist or an endodontist is chosen for the root canal procedure. An endodontist is a dentist that specialises in the tooth pulp and nerve and their health.

1. X-ray is the first thing that is done by the dentist when he suspects that you might need a root canal. This is done so that the right spot of the tooth decay can be found.

2. Local anaesthesia is given to numb the area around the tooth that is to be removed. Anaesthesia is not necessary because the nerve of the tooth that is to be removed is already dead. Yet, it is done to make the patient feel at ease.

3. To keep the area around the tooth that is to be removed free of saliva, the dentist or endodontist will put a rubber dam which is a sheet of rubber around it.

4. The next step is removing the tooth by making an opening or an access hole which is drilled into the tooth. After this, the tooth pulp, nerve, debris or pus and another decayed material are removed. Files of varying diameter are used to scrape around and remove the debris through the access hole. This is known as pulpectomy.

5. The roots of the tooth pulp that has been removed are then filled with gutta-percha material and the last step is the sealing of the root, which is done by cement.

How to take care after the Root Canal?

Following the procedure, for the first few days, the tooth may feel sensitive due to inflammation which is not a big issue and can be controlled by using painkillers. Generally, the next day the patient can return back to normal day to day activities. Doing the following will ensure good dental health after getting a root canal.

1. Oral hygiene- Brushing teeth every day followed by flossing and using a mouthwash every now and then are very important in making sure there will not be any more future problems.

2. Regular dental visit- Seeing the dentist or endodontist regularly is compulsory as they will do check-ups and solve problems such as tooth decay at its prime so that it does not become severe. 

3. Food habits- Choose foods that do not contain a lot of carbohydrates or sugars as these are the root causes of tooth decay. Also, avoid eating hard foods after you get a root canal done.

Thinking Of Breast Augmentation? Here's What You Need To Know

The term breast augmentation also called mammoplasty or boob job is used to describe the medical procedure that is done to increase the size, change the texture of the shape of a woman's breasts. This is done by either using implants or by fat grafting. Breast implants are also used to correct congenital defects of the breasts or the chest, for reconstruction of breasts post- mastectomy.

The globally popular breast augmentation using implants uses either an implant filled with saline solution or silicone gel. The fat graft transfer procedure is used to correct the contours of the breasts or change their shape by using autologous adipocyte fat tissue which is drawn from the patient's body.

Here is a list of things that must be kept in mind before going for breast augmentation.

1. Breasts are going to be way up at the beginning- Your breasts are going to sit way up at first and your skin and tissues are going to need about three months to adjust around the implant. It will feel like your breasts are near your armpits at first but its nothing to worry about. The skin and tissues adjustment is necessary for the natural look of your new breasts.

2. You can choose the type of implant the doctor is going to use. Both saline and silicone implants have their disadvantages and advantages. In 2014, 77% of implants used were silicone, as these feel more real and saline implants show ripples. However, leaks in saline implants are easier to detect as their size reduces visibly.

3. Nipples will feel prickly- The procedure affects your body in many ways and it's normal to experience tingling and prickliness and pulsating feeling as your breasts heal.

4. You will feel your breasts move- If the implants have been placed sub-muscularly, it is easy to feel them move. No one except you will notice this.

5. Choose the right surgeon- Keep in mind that not all surgeons are board-certified or are skilled or experienced. Do your research on the internet and also by asking people.

6. There is a possibility of more surgeries after the implantation procedure- Weight loss and pregnancy can change the shape of your breasts. Within the next ten years, most candidates of breast implants need a revision surgery.

7. You need to be a healthy candidate for a safe surgery- If you smoke or have a family history of breast cancer or are obese, then most likely you should not get a breast implant. If the surgery is done anyway, it can complicate your health and have adverse effects on your body. It is important to be completely honest with your doctor.

8. Risks of the surgery- There are many risks associated with this surgery such as deflation, asymmetry and also, bleeding. Some rare risks associated with this are infection and risk of cancer. 

9. Exercise restrictions- After surgery, there are a lot of restrictions on physical activities. You most definitely cannot be as active as you were before.

10. Posture- Augmented breasts will affect your body posture due to their weight, just like a normal natural breast would.

11. Try out different sizes before going in for the surgery- Sizers are neoprene sacs filled with beads that are offered by most clinics and can be used to stuff your bra to help in the decision of the size that you want.

12. Having second thoughts - It is normal to question yourself if you went too far or if the difference is not big enough. A lot of women feel, what is called 'boob greed' which means they feel they could have gone a little bigger after a few months of the surgery. But, there will come a time of self-acceptance and you will be happy with your new breast size.

Dentist Vs Orthodontist - What Treatment You need

Major issue or minor issue, it doesn't matter. Your oral health should definitely not be taken for granted. It is also important to decide which of the two, a dentist or an orthodontist is preferable for your problem and the goals you want out of the treatment.

In order to help you decide which one is suitable, you need to firstly understand what they actually do and what their qualifications are.

What does a Dentist do?

Almost all of us have visited a dentist at least one point in our lives. Although, it is essential to visit the dentist for regular check-ups, cleaning and x-rays of our teeth to maintain a good overall oral health. 

Dentists hold a degree in dentistry, which is a broad field focusing on the health and well-being of teeth, mouth and gums. A large variety of oral health problems such as cavities, gum diseases like gingivitis, irregular teeth, broken or decayed tooth etc. are treated by dentists. For the most part, you should visit a dentist at least twice a year to maintain a good oral and dental health. You should get your teeth cleaned professionally at the dental clinic and also get x-rays to ensure the well-being of your teeth and jaws and also, to detect potential issues.

What does an Orthodontist do?

An orthodontist is a specialised professional who is an expert in correcting crooked teeth, overbites, underbites and also, irregular teeth. 

An orthodontist, along with a dental degree, also has an additional two-year training and internship experience in orthodontics. This is where an orthodontist has an edge over a dentist. But generally, a dentist is also licensed to perform orthodontic procedures and who does a better job at it depends on the experience and on how well they can evaluate a person's teeth and how skilled their hands are.

A dentist may, however, choose to refer their patient to an orthodontist based on the patient's needs if they are not as confident or skilled at the job of an orthodontist. Some of the common orthodontic issues that include, irregular teeth and crooked teeth are to be fixed not just for superficial purposes but they may also cause problems such as bone destruction, speech impediments and lockjaw. 

How to choose?

We have seen that all dentists cannot perform orthodontal procedures but all orthodontists can perform dental procedures.

The dentist is great for the following oral health issues.

1. General health and well-being of your teeth and gums including general cleaning of your teeth.

2. If you have tooth decay, broken teeth and cavity

3. Teeth and gum related diseases such as periodontal disease or gingivitis.

4. Dentists will also evaluate your oral health and give you specific advice regarding hygiene

Orthodontists, on the other hand, can provide you with the following services.

1. Overcrowded, misaligned or irregular teeth can be fixed by an orthodontist as they specialise in braces.

2. When you have teeth overbites or underbites.

3. For teeth whitening, prosthetics/ implants, crowns etc.

4. When your teeth are affecting your ability to chew and other normal functions such as speak.

An orthodontist specialises in evaluating the alignment and the proper course of action required to fix the issue. This field of dentistry specialises in the prosthetic teeth usage, whitening, braces, crowns etc. An orthodontist is helping millions of people gain their confidence and self-esteem back by correcting their teeth and furthermore enhancing their look by enhancing their smile.

Liposuction 101 - Procedure, Risks and Benefits

Also known as suction-assisted lipectomy or lipoplasty, liposuction is a procedure used to suck out fat from areas of the body, trunk or face that are not responsive to diet and exercise. It is a very popular procedure and is second most popular after breast augmentation. Liposuction is needed to reshape and redefine the natural contours of the body and this is called lipo sculpting. Despite the fact that you may lose some weight, it should not be considered as weight loss surgery.

Liposuction also, cannot  reduce the visibility of cellulite

Some common liposuction procedures people look for include- double chin reduction, tightening and reshaping, liposuction of the breast to minimize scarring, reshape and reduce the size and also, liposuction for armpits for the better contour of arms and chest area.

Are you a good candidate?

A good candidate for liposuction is generally, in a good enough shape and requires sculpting of their body at certain problem areas. The patient must be near their ideal weight. Other important characteristics of a good candidate for liposuction include non-smokers, good psychological health including a positive outlook and realistic expectations from the procedure.

This is not a suitable procedure to use as a weight loss therapy in obese patients. Generally, one to ten pounds of fat is removed from the body. While large pounds of fat can be removed from the body by liposuction but it has a lot of complications and side-effects such as skin rippling, contour irregularities, and safety risks. An obese person, therefore, must follow the natural way to lose weight by diet and exercise and only then revert back to liposuction for extra help in stubborn areas.

Types of Liposuction procedures

1. Suction-assisted lipectomy is the traditional liposuction process. It is a physical way of removing fat from the body with the help of liposuction cannulas and tubes which vary in size from two millimetres to four millimetres. This is the proven and well-established liposuction procedure and also, is extremely popular.

2. Power assisted liposuction uses a liposuction probe that is pushed in out using power and gives a rapid removal of fat from the body.

3. In ultrasound liposuction, the fat cells of the patient are melted and then removed. This process is used to remove fat from more stubborn or fibrous areas of the body like the love handles, the male chest, and the trunk.

4. Newer methods of removing fat include laser liposuction or smart liposuction which are yet to be performed and are still in their testing stage. 

Complications associated with Liposuction

Liposuction must be performed by a well-qualified and experienced professional as it is an invasive procedure and has a number of risks due to the meddling of body chemistry.

1. Tissue death also called necrosis
2. Fat may go into the bloodstream and clog blood vessels (fat clots)
3. Excessive bleeding (hematoma) can cause loss of blood and weakness
4. Risks are involved with the use of anesthesia
5. It can complicate cardiac function
6. Deep vein thrombosis
7. Unfavorable scarring, body contour, skin discoloration, sagging skin etc.
8. Swelling and pain

Complementary Procedures are done with Liposuction

As liposuction is performed on both men and women to improves the aesthetic appearance of their body,it is often done with another procedure. For women, liposuction often follows breast augmentation. In the case of patients who have to lose skin (more mature patients) or patients who have had extra fat removed, a tummy tuck or body lift is performed.

Before the Procedure

Some tests are performed prior to the procedure to confirm the patient's health status. Also, a complete and detailed health and medical history including the weight history are important to be studied by the surgeon before the procedure. Also, certain medications such as anti-inflammatory medicines and aspirin are required to  be cut off before the procedure.

After the Procedure

When the liposuction is done, you will be under observation for a couple of days. When discharged, medications will be prescribed pain, swelling, and general quick recovery. After two to three weeks of the procedure, non-strenuous jobs can be done but complete recovery may take months. The recovery time varies, depending upon the body part and the extent of the incision.
The results of the surgery can be fully noticed after an average of three months as before, the swelling and bruising can be very significant. Patients are required to be rested and patient for their final results.

Monday, 19 September 2016

Here's Why You Might Need a Dental Implant

Until their teeth begin to ache, most people leave their oral health care unattended. With a little attention and care, our teeth can have a healthy and long life. But only when things go wrong their value in our lives is realised.

Some issues such as inflammation, tooth decay etc. can be treated with the help of simple procedures. But for cases where a person loses one or more teeth due to any reason like injury or periodontal disease, a dental implant is used to replace the teeth.

What are Dental Implants?

Endosseous implants or dental implants or fixtures are prosthetics that are used to replace a broken or a removed tooth in your mouth. They are artificial tooth roots that are placed in your gums to interface with the bone of the jaw or the skull. These are made up of ceramic materials and metals such as titanium. These implants are compatible with your jaw and are also, very natural looking. They get easily fused with the jaws and support the prosthetics such as bridges, crowns, facial prosthesis or even full dentures. 

Titanium is used as it forms a strong bond with bones by the biological process of osseointegration. A variable amount of time is required from person to person to allow the root to osseointegrate and then prosthetics are added on their top.

Types of Dental Implants

1. Endosteal or in the bone - Blades, screws or cylinders are surgically placed in the jaw. One implant can hold one or more teeth. 

2. Subperiosteal or on the bone - These type of implants are placed on the top of bone and the metal framework protrudes from the gums in order to hold the implant in place. Generally used for patients with minimal teeth height and cannot wear conventional dentures.

Do you need Dental Implants?

A person must have a good oral health, that is, they must not carry diseases like the periodontal disease to qualify as a good dental implant candidate. 
Adequate bone height is required in the jaw to support the implant. In these cases, Subperiosteal implants can be used or Endosteal implant can be used after building up the jaw prior to the implantation. 

Chronic illnesses such as diabetes and leukaemia can interfere with the healing process after the implant procedure has been done. Also, smoking can increase the risk of losing an implant.

What does the treatment involve?

It is an in-office procedure that can be done in one seating with the help of anaesthesia to reduce pain. A dentist and a periodontist consult the patient and tailor the perfect implant and implantation procedure as per the patient's demands. Also, a treatment plan is specially designed to suit the patient.

After the procedure, some pain and swelling is normal and can be controlled by taking prescribed medication. A diet of soft, easily chewable and cold foods is suited during the healing process. After two to three months the prosthetic is placed on top of the implant. During the healing process, however, a temporary crown is provided by the dentist to help in the chewing and speaking.

How to care for your Prosthetic teeth?

Dental implants are exactly like your own natural and teeth and need all the regular oral health and hygiene care as a natural tooth. The bacterial biofilm formation must be controlled on the teeth.

A periodic check-up must be done with the dentist and the periodontist to check the functionality and the integrity of the implant. Along with this, the prescribed medication should be taken at time for quick healing of the implant

Dental implants are very important as they restore a person's confidence by giving them an enhanced smile. Before deciding on getting a dental implant it should be extensively discussed with a dentist and periodontist.

Thinking of going under the knife- Here’s what you need to know

Face and body modification has been an important part of human civilisations and is being done for centuries. The beauty industry is estimated to grow up to a worth of two hundred and sixty- five billion US dollars by the next year (2017). This industry includes skin- care, hair- care, make- up, perfumes and plastic surgery. Out of these, plastic surgery is believed to grow to a net worth of twenty- seven billion US dollars by 2019.

Before going under the knife, it is of utmost importance that you ask yourself, why exactly is the life-altering physical change needed. 

You must consider the following points very carefully before going under the knife.

1. Do plenty of research- It is very important that a person considering cosmetic surgery be aware of the procedure, cost, complications and also important, all the doctors  that are eligible and good. The best way to start the research is the internet. Look through and read through all the articles and videos that concern the surgery that you want to get. All the surgeries performed in a clinic must be approved or accredited by the authority in that field. It is important as you are looking in to get a huge physical alteration.

2. Choose a doctor based on their skill, experience and your comfort level with them and not cost- There may be a lot of advertisement for some surgeon but it will not guarantee that he/ she is the best at their job. You must look for a well-qualified and skilled doctor with whom you are comfortable enough to share everything because the last thing you want with your plastic surgeon is miscommunication. Look through their previous work and see if  their profile fits your needs.

3. Realise that things can go wrong and you might need a corrective surgery which holds greater risk- You must have realistic expectations out of a plastic surgery. Realise that a plastic surgeon is not a fairy godmother. They can make mistakes too. For the most part, if you choose a good surgeon, you will be satisfied with your look post-surgery, but, sometimes they can make mistakes too. A corrective plastic surgery has a higher risk than a fresh one.

4. Getting cosmetic surgery with the wrong intention or for the wrong reasons- You must get cosmetic surgery only if something about your body troubles you emotionally or psychologically. Don't go under the knife just because of a loved one or because you see a certain feature you want to copy from a celebrity.

5. Disclose all medical history to your surgeon before the procedure- For this purpose, it is important that you are comfortable enough with your doctor. Anything may go wrong as this is a major surgery and your surgeon must know all medical history while in the operating room.

6. See a psychiatrist and decide whether you are a good candidate- Seeing a psychiatrist before going for a plastic surgery is also important. Many people get it done in a state of extremely low self- esteem or depression. IN such a situation it most definitely is a wrong decision.

7. Ask a lot of questions- Get a friendly doctor and ask all that you need to know. It is surprising how little people ask and how they blindly trust a surgeon who is going to change their look permanently. 

8. Realise that the procedure is painful- Recovering from a surgery is always a slow and painful process. During this time, a lot of people who have gone under the knife have shared that they got depressed and stressed out and it wasn't the most fun experience.

9. Realise that some surgeons will operate on anyone and be getting turned down can be good- A lot of surgeons are in this field for the money and are ready to operate on anyone. If some surgeon turns you down, its only for the good.

10. Get multiple consultations- Go to many doctors for consultation regarding everything from whether you need the surgery to the procedure and recovery. See which one suits your needs the best and only then go for it.

Teeth Whitening 101 - Easy and Effective Procedures

Teeth whitening involve either the whitening of discoloured teeth to its natural shade or the whitening to go beyond the natural shade. Dull or discoloured teeth have nothing to do with how healthy your teeth are. Totally healthy teeth may need the teeth whitening procedure done to restore the underlying natural teeth shade. This can be done by removing the layer of stains on the outer surface of teeth and also calculus of tartar.

There are generally two types of stains extrinsic and intrinsic stains. Yellow teeth stains that are caused over the years is called as the intrinsic stain. In this kind of dental stain, the dentin's tan is revealed after the enamel wears off and it gives it a yellowish off-white colour. Antibiotics such as tetracycline or even the excessive exposure of teeth to fluorine (fluorosis) can cause intrinsic stains.

Stains on your teeth that are caused by factors such as coffee, red wine, tea, smoking or tobacco are types of extrinsic stains. By the removal of this stain from the surface of the teeth, the underlying natural tooth colour can be restored. This can be done by the dentist by cleaning the teeth and this process is professionally called 'scale and polish'. This can also be done at home by taking care of your oral hygiene and using products that are aimed at this problem. Calculus or tartar is a hardened dental plaque and is fairly difficult to remove and needs a professional for that purpose. 

Teeth whitening can be done at home or in-office.

In-Office Teeth Whitening

Before a dentist proceeds to perform the teeth whitening procedure, he takes all the required information about the patient's overall health and dental health history, along with allergies and sensitivity of their teeth. Also, an examination is performed by the professional to observe the placement and restorations of the teeth and x-rays are done to determine the nature and depth of irregularities if any. The whitening shade guide helps in determining the shade of the patient's teeth and how light they want to go with the colour. 

In-office teeth whitening procedure can lighten teeth from two to eight shades. They whitening will last up to eight months but it mostly depends on the patient’s lifestyle. Therefore, it is also important that after the whitening procedure the patient takes precautions to avoid foods and medicines that can stain the teeth. A light-cured protective layer is used it protect the soft tissues such as the gums and papilla which are the gum tips between the teeth. This is required because otherwise, it may cause chemical burns to these soft tissues. The most popular bleaching agents used are hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide which breaks down in the patient's mouth as hydrogen peroxide.

Laser teeth whitening or light accelerated teeth bleaching user laser light to accelerate teeth whitening procedure in the dental office. Most common type of technology used in the laser is halogen arc, plasma arc and LEDs. The high energy in laser beams excites the peroxide particles and facilitates the whitening process. Many products and devices are available in pharmacies that aim at the same thing. Hence, it can be done at home as well.

At Home Teeth Whitening

Many products are aimed at teeth whitening and can be used for this purpose such as chewing gums, toothpaste, whitening strips, pain-on-films, gels and rinses. Most of the Pharmacy sold teeth whitening products use bleaching agents such as carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide and their effectiveness depends on the concentration of these chemicals.

Natural ways can also be adopted for this purpose such as use of malic acid, which is found in juices of green apples. Although excessive use of malic acid can dissolve the teeth enamel to show the yellow dentin underneath. This can lead to a further darkening of the teeth. Food products such as carrots, apples and celery, on the other hand, causes excessive saliva production which further, lightens the teeth by mechanically cleansing. They also maintain fresh breath by killing bacteria present in the mouth.